Purpose: We aimed to compare the thickness of anterior sclera, corneal layers, and pre-ocular tear film between patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and healthy individuals.
Methods: Fifty-one patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and 41 healthy control participants were recruited in this cross-sectional and comparative study. The thickness of the pre-ocular tear film, corneal epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and endothelium were measured on the corneal apex. Anterior scleral thickness was measured at distances of 1 mm and 3 mm from the limbus. The anterior segment module of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to measure thicknesses of pre-ocular tear film, corneal layers, and anterior sclera.
Results: Tear film thickness, Schirmer’s test, and tear break up time values were significantly lower in the Sjögren’s disease group than in the healthy controls (p<0.05). The thickness measurements of corneal layers and sclera were similar between the groups. Tear film thickness was moderately correlated with the Schirmer’s test results (r=0.34, p=0.001), but there was no correlation between the Schirmer’s test results and tear break up time (r=0.18, p=0.09).
Conclusions: Pre-ocular tear film, as measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, was thinner in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome than in the healthy controls. The thicknesses of corneal layers and anterior sclera were similar between the groups.
Keywords: Esclera; Síndrome de Sjogren-Larsson; Segmento anterior do olho; Tomografia de coerência óptica; Estudo comparativo
Purpose: To compare the intravitreal concentrations of cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration, inflammation, and angiogenesis in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other vitreoretinal diseases.
Methods: A multiplex bead immunoassay was used to measure vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor, serum amyloid P, C-reactive protein, complement C4, alpha-1 antitrypsin, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta in patients undergoing 23-gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and other diagnoses (control group).
Results: We evaluated 55 patients, of whom 24 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 31 had other diagnoses including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, macular hole, and epiretinal membrane. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy demonstrated increased levels of serum amyloid P (85.49 vs. 31.38 ng/mL); C-reactive protein (59.89 vs. 41.75 ng/mL), vascular endothelial growth factor (2,330.11 vs. 554.25 pg/mL; p<0.001), platelet-derived growth factor A (127.32 vs. 39.11 pg/mL), platelet-derived growth factor B (29.37 vs. 7.12 pg/mL), interleukin-6 (69.37 vs. 33.58 pg/mL), interleukin-8 (175.25 vs. 59.71 pg/mL), and interleukin-10 (3.70 vs. 1.88 pg/mL); all p<0.004 when compared with the control group. Levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (30.06 vs. 27.48 ng/mL; p=0.295), complement C4 (570.78 vs. 366.24 ng/mL; p=0.069), and alpha-1-antitrypsin (359.27 vs. 522.44 ng/mL; p=0.264) were not significantly different between the groups. Intravitreal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-beta were undetectable. Serum Amyloid P, C-reactive protein, platelet-derived growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor B, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 were correlated positively with vascular endothelial growth factor.
Conclusions: Cellular mediators involved in neurodegeneration and inflammation demonstrated increased levels in the vitreous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and may be part of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Retinopatia diabética; Degeneração retiniana; Citocinas; Proteínas da fase aguda; Humor vítreo
Purpose: We aimed to assess ocular surface characteristics in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis without thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and compare the results with those of healthy children.
Methods: Twenty-two children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (Group 1) and 20 healthy children without any ocular and/or systemic disorder (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear film osmolarity measurement (TearLab Osmolarity System, San Diego, CA, USA), Schirmer and tear film breakup time tests, meibography, and conjunctival brush cytology were performed and compared the results between the groups.
Results: The study group included 19 girls and 3 boys in Group 1 and 12 girls and 8 boys in Group 2 (p=0.081). Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy was not identified in any of the patients. Mean tear film osmolarity was 310.23 ± 11.98 mOsm/l in Group 1 and 313.60 ± 15.03 mOsm/l in Group 2 (p=0.424). Mean Schirmer test score was lower in Group 1 (14.91 ± 6.27) compared with Group 2 (23.60 ± 5.63) (p=0.001). Mean tear film breakup time was lower in Group 1 (11.78 ± 4.07) compared with Group 2 (15.1 ± 1.6) (p=0.013). Moreover, mean meibomian gland area loss was 25.01% ± 10.04% in Group 1 and 16.54% ± 6.02% in Group 2 (p=0.002). Conjunctival cytologic analysis in Group 1 revealed grade 0 changes in 6 patients (27.3%), grade 1 changes in 14 patients (63.6%), and grade 2 changes in 2 patients (9.1%), whereas 18 patients (90%) had grade 0 changes and 2 patients (10%) had grade 1 changes (p=0.001) in Group 2.
Conclusions: The study demonstrates several ocular surface changes in children with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. These findings may indicate a tendency for dry eye in pediatric Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients without clinical evidence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
Keywords: Síndrome do olho seco; Doença de Hashimoto; Lágrimas; Concentração osmolar; Superfície ocular; Crianças
Purpose: To evaluate whether training medical residents with the Eyesi® cataract surgery simulator reduces the occurrence of intraoperative complications.
Methods: This was a retrospective study in which the first 10 phacoemulsification surgeries performed by two groups of second-year ophthalmology residents were evaluated, during 2014 and 2015. The first Group consisted of seven residents from 2014 who had not had previous training with the simulator. The second Group was formed of seven residents in 2015, who had completed the C-level (intermediate) training with the simulator before beginning surgery on patients. We then compared these two groups regarding the frequency of occurrence of the four main intraoperative surgical complications: posterior capsule rupture, aphakia, and nucleus fragment dislocation into the vitreous, and extracapsular conversion.
Results: A total of 140 surgeries were performed, 70 by Group 1 and 70 by Group 2. The total number of complications was 19 (27.14%) in Group 1 and nine (12.86%) in Group 2, and this reduction was significant (p=0.031). Fourteen (20%) surgeries in Group 1 and seven (10%) in Group 2 had complications. The complications were 13 posterior capsule ruptures (18.57%) in Group 1 and seven (10%) in Group 2; three eyes had nucleus fragment dislocations (4.29%) in Group 1, but only one (1.43%) in Group 2; two extracapsular conversions (2.86%) occurred in Group 1 and one (1.43%) in Group 2; and there was one aphakia (1.43%) in Group 1.
Conclusions: The training with the Eyesi® cataract surgery simulator significantly reduced the total number of intraoperative complications in the first 10 phacoemulsification cataract surgeries performed by ophthalmology residents.
Keywords: Simulação; Simulação por computador; Facoemulsificação/ efeitos adversos; Residentes/educação; Corpo clínico hospitalar; Ensino
Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and types of optic nerve involvement in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.
Methods: For this retrospective cross-sectional study, we examined all patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis referred to our Uveitis Section during the last 12 years, and we included patients with optic nerve involvement in the study. The primary outcome was the prevalence of optic nerve involvement, and secondary outcomes included the types of optic nerve involvement and the final best-corrected visual acuity after treatment.
Results: The prevalence of optic nerve involvement was 14.4%, with the leading cause being the activation of a juxtapapillary lesion (70.5%). We found papillitis in two eyes and neuroretinitis in two eyes (11.7% for each). We only detected one optic nerve involvement secondary to a distant active lesion (5.8%). Sixteen patients (94.1%) had unilateral ocular toxoplasmosis. The overall final best-corrected visual acuity after treatment was 10/10 (LogMAR = 0.0) excluding the three patients with a juxtapapillary scar involving the macula.
Conclusions: Optic nerve involvement was common in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. The main type of optic nerve involvement was caused by activation of an old juxtapapillary lesion. Treatment was quickly effective, but the best-corrected visual acuity was dependent on the presence of a scar in the papillomacular bundle.
Keywords: Toxoplasmose ocular; Neuroretinite; Papiledema; Prevalência; Prognóstico
Purpose: To compare retinal and choroidal thickness in patients with Behçet’s disease with and without ocular involvement as well as to evaluate the correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and choroidal thickness among patients with Behçet’s disease.
Methods: This was a prospective interventional study investigating erythrocyte sedimentation as well as choroidal and retinal thickness among patients with Behçet’s disease. Patients who were diagnosed based on The International Criteria for Behçet’s Disease with (Group A) or without (Group B) ocular involvement and a matched control group (Group C) participated in the study. Optical coherence tomography measurements and blood tests were performed on the same day. Retinal and choroidal thickness were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and central macular thickness, central subfoveal choroidal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography.
Results: Average erythrocyte sedimentation values were 9.89 mm/h in Group A, 16.21 mm/h in Group B, and 3.89 mm/h in Group C; average central subfoveal choroidal thickness values were 350.66, 331.74, and 325.95 µm, respectively. Average central macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values of patients in Groups A, B and C were 226.39 and 225.97µm; 234.11 and 92.00 µm; and 97.58 and 99.84 µm, respectively. No significant difference was seen between Group A and B patients in central subfoveal choroidal thickness, central macular thickness, or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values. Central macular thickness was statistically significantly thinner in Groups A and B than in Group C (p=0.016). Group A had thinning in the nasal quadrant of the retinal and general retinal nerve fiber layers when compared with those in Group C (p=0.010 and 0.041, respectively). A connection could not be established between the erythrocyte sedimentation, central subfoveal choroidal thickness, central macular thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in the patients with Behçet’s disease.
Conclusion: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is typically used to test for activation of Behçet’s disease and assess treatment response. In our study, we could not establish a connection between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and central subfoveal choroidal thickness, central macular thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with systematically active Behçet’s disease without ocular involvement.
Keywords: Síndrome de Behçet; Sedimentação sanguínea; Índices de eritrócitos; Coroide; Retina; Tomografia de coerência óptica
Purpose: To determine the effect of panretinal photocoagulation on optic disk topographic parameters in non-glaucomatous patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Methods: This was a prospective, single-center, observational study. Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients with diabetes underwent panretinal photocoagulation for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Stereoscopic disk photographs and optic nerve head parameters were evaluated using the Zeiss fundus camera and the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph), respectively, at baseline and 12 months after the completion of panretinal photocoagulation.
Results: Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients (15 female) with a mean age of 53.7 (range 26-74) years were recruited. No significant difference was found between the stereo photography determined mean horizontal and vertical cup-to-disk ratio before and after panretinal photocoagulation treatment (p=0.461 and 0.839, respectively). The global values of the optic nerve head parameters analyzed with the HRT3 showed no significant change from baseline to 12 months, including the disk area, cup area, rim area, cup volume, rim volume, cup-to-disk area ratio, linear cup-to-disk ratio, mean cup depth, maximum cup depth, cup shape measure, height variation contour, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cross-sectional area.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that panretinal photocoagulation does not cause morphological optic disk changes in patients with diabetic proliferative retinopathy after 1 year of follow-up.
Keywords: Fotocoagulação; Disco óptico; Microscopia confocal; Retinopatia diabética; Polarimetria de varredura por laser
Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome is puzzling because it results in elevated intracranial pressure with no identifiable underlying cause. Ocular motor nerve palsies, other than a unilateral or bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy, are rarely seen in patients with this condition. We report here on a 25-year-old female patient with bilateral fourth cranial nerve palsy caused by pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, whose ocular and systemic signs and symptoms of nerve palsy were completely resolved after medical treatment. We infer that fourth nerve palsy could be associated with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome; therefore, clinicians should consider rare ocular motor nerve palsies, even bilaterally, in patients with pseudotumor cerebri syndrome.
Keywords: Pseudotumor cerebral/complicações; Doenças do nervo troclear; Doenças dos nervos cranianos; Diplopia; Pressão intracraniana; Relatos de casos.
Purpose: Chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride, a preservative, has inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. However, addition of the anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine to a therapeutic protocol may mitigate these effects. This study compared the toxic effects of a 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution and the possible protective effect of 0.05% cyclosporine when applied topically to the rabbit conjunctiva.
Methods: Fifteen age- and weight-matched, female New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups and treated for 30 consecutive days. Group 1, 2, and 3 - benzalkonium chloride received 0.1% every 24 h, 0.05% cyclosporine every 6 h, and both treatments, respectively. In each rabbit, the left eye was subjected to treatment and the right eye was a control. The rabbits were euthanized at after the experiment. Goblet cells and blood vessels were then enumerated in conjunctival tissues stained with periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin-eosin, respectively. Differences between treated and untreated eyes and between groups were compared using the t-test and analysis of variance.
Results: Benzalkonium chloride treatment, with and without cyclosporine, significantly reduced (p≤0.05) in the number of goblet cells in treatment eyes compared with that in respective control eyes. Alternatively, adding cyclosporine to benzalkonium chloride did not prevent the loss of conjunctival goblet cells, and a significant reduction in the number of goblet cells was noted. Benzalkonium chloride-induced significant increase in the number of new blood vessels was mitigated significantly by the addition of cyclosporine.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated the magnitude of conjunctival injury caused by chronic instillation of benzalkonium chloride. Although cyclosporine did not mitigate the effects on goblet cells, its addition minimized inflammatory angiogenesis induced by benzalkonium chloride.
Keywords: Cloreto de benzalcônio; Ciclosporina; Células caliciformes; Vasos sanguíneos; Conjuntiva
Purpose: To evaluate ophthalmic ultrasonographic findings associated with active ocular toxoplasmosis.
Methods: Forty-seven eyes with active ocular toxoplasmosis in 47 patients were subjected to ocular ultrasonography using the transpalpebral technique (10-MHz transducer) and fundus photography. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed.
Results: Ocular ultrasonography revealed vitritis, posterior vitreous detachment, retinal wall thickening, and non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in 47 (100%), 36 [76.6%; partial in 12 (25.5%) and total in 23 (48.9%)], 12 (25.5%), and 5 eyes (10.6%). Thirty-five of the 36 eyes with posterior vitreous detachment (97.2%) exhibited posterior hyaloid thickening; moreover, adhesion to the exudative lesion and vitreoschisis were observed in 4 (11.1%) and 12 eyes (25.5%), respectively. Ultrasonography detected the location of the exudative focus in 12 eyes (25.5%).
Conclusion: Ultrasonography is helpful for detecting important intraocular findings of acute ocular toxoplasmosis that can be hindered by medial opacity or posterior synechiae.
Keywords: Toxoplasmose ocular/diagnóstico por imagem; Uveíte; Descolamento de vítreo
Intraoperative and postoperative cataract surgery in eyes with anterior megalophthalmos are challenging procedures. Herein we describe the case of a 53-year-old male with anterior megalophthalmos who developed unilateral Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome following cataract surgery.
Keywords: Extração de catarata/efeitos adverso; Córnea/cirurgia; Câmara anterior; Midríase; Síndrome; Humanos; Relatos de casos
Aniridia is a congenital eye disorder with a variable degree of hypoplasia or absence of iris tissue. It is caused by loss of function of the PAX6 gene and may be an isolated ocular abnormality or part of a syndrome. WAGRO refers to a rare genetic condition leading to Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation, and obesity and is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p), where the PAX6 gene is located. Here, we report on an 8-year-old boy with aniridia, polar cataract, and lens subluxation along with neuropsychomotor and speech delays. Karyotype evaluation showed an interstitial deletion including region 11p13-p14, confirming the diagnosis of WAGRO syndrome. In cases of aniridia, a diagnosis of WAGRO syndrome should be considered.
Keywords: Aniridia; Síndrome WAGR; Fator de transcrição PAX6; Catarata; Tumor de Wilms.
Wide-field angiography enables assessing peripheral areas with better quality and gives greater deep focus, which improves the image periphery. Some studies have proposed the usefulness of these angiographic systems in inflammatory diseases of the retina. However, few studies have evaluated this technique in Eales disease. We present a case series in which 5 eyes of 3 patients with Eales disease were evaluated by using retinal fluorescein angiography with 30º, 50º, and 150º lenses in a laser-scanning ophthalmoscope. These cases highlight the usefulness of wide-field fluorescein angiography in the diagnosis and follow-up of peripheral ischemic retinal areas in Eales disease, which enables better follow-up than possible with conventional fluorescein angiography images.
Keywords: Angiografia com fluoresceína; Doença de Eales; Retina/patologia; Doenças retinianas; Transtornos da visão
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of intracameral administration of cefuroxime on oxidative stress and endothelial apoptosis in rat corneal tissue.
METHODS: In total, 30 rats were divided into 3 groups of 10 rats each (intracameral administration of cefuroxime 0.1 mg/0.01 mL (cefuroxime group); intracameral administration of balanced salt solution 0.01 mL (control group); or absence of intracameral injection (sham group). Corneal endothelial apoptosis was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-3 and caspase-8. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and paraoxonase and arylesterase levels were examined in corneal endothelial tissue and serum.
RESULTS: Paraoxonase levels in the serum were significantly different between the sham and cefuroxime groups (p=0.027). A significant difference was also observed in total oxidant status levels between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.023). In addition, there were significant differences in total antioxidant status levels in corneal tissue between the cefuroxime and sham groups (p<0.001) and between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, significant differences were also observed in oxidative stress index levels between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.001) and between the cefuroxime and sham groups (p=0.026). According to the immunohistochemical staining results, a significant association with caspase-3 activity existed between the cefuroxime and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.007), while no significant difference was found with caspase-8 activity (p=0.541). Caspase-3 activity exhibited a significant relationship between the sham and balanced salt solution groups (p=0.018), but no relationship was found with caspase-8 activity (p=0.623).
CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical examination revealed that intracameral cefuroxime increased apoptosis when compared to the sham and balanced salt solution groups. Moreover, intracameral cefuroxime increased oxidative stress in the cornea and simultaneously induced apoptosis.
Keywords: Apoptose; Caspase-3; Caspase-8; Cefuroxima; Fator de estresse oxidativo
Cicatricial ectropion may be a consequence of certain systemic diseases as well as the result of drug use. Our goal here was to research the different causes of this condition as reported in the literature, including more recently suspected etiologies. A detailed PubMed literature search indicated many different etiologies were associated with cicatricial ectropion development, from severe cases of systemic diseases, such as ichthyosis and lupus erythematosus, to reversible scenarios secondary to anti-glaucomatous drug use. More recently reported connections include periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, frontal osteomyelitis, and antineoplastic agents. Indeed, cicatricial ectropion may be highly symptomatic; being able to determine its real etiology is imperative to managing patients properly. In this investigation, we felt that an explicitly multidisciplinary approach was essential, especially for cases associated with systemic conditions.
Keywords: Ectrópio/diagnóstico; Ectrópio/induzido quimicamente; Pálpebras/anormalidades; Cicatriz
PURPOSE: As a class of psychostimulant drugs, amphetamines are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Following the onset of these effects, 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals, resulting in long-lasting neurotoxicity. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of treatment with low dose of methylenedioxymethamphetamine on retinal function of C57BL/6 mice and its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into two groups (n=10): one group was treated with phosphate buffered saline by intraperitoneal injection daily; the other group was treated with 1 mg/kg methylenedioxymethamphetamine by intraperitoneal injection daily for three months. Electroretinography was used to test retinal function every month. H&E staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay were used to evaluate the retinal morphology and histology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assays were used to measure markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Gene and protein expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot.
RESULTS: Three-month treatment with methylenedioxymethamphetamine induced significant retinal dysfunction via photoreceptor cell apoptosis by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that long-term treatment with methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases inflammatory responses in photoreceptor cells resulting in retinal dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, this investigation provides preclinical rationale for the retina damage caused by the methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse.
Keywords: 3,4-metilenedioximetanfetamina; Estresse oxidativo; Resposta inflamatória; Retina/lesões; Camundongos
PURPOSE: To assess the frequency of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery in a Brazilian sample.
METHODS: This clinic-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bonsucesso Federal Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Charts of patients who underwent cataract surgery over a two-year period were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative keratometric measurements were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 1707 eyes of 1045 patients were enrolled. The corneal astigmatism was less than 1.0 D in 971 eyes (56.9%), 1.0-1.99 D in 496 eyes (29.1%), 2.0-2.99 D in 157 eyes (9.2%), and more than 3.0 D in 83 eyes (4.9%). The mean corneal astigmatism was 0.92 ± (SD) 0.96 D (range 0 - 10.25 D).
CONCLUSION: Over 40% of the patients undergoing cataract surgery enrolled in this study had more than 1.0 D of corneal astigmatism and may benefit from the use of toric intraocular lenses. These data can be useful for planning to make this technology available for patients.
Keywords: Astigmatismo/epidemiologia; Extração de catarata/ efeitos adversos; Lentes intraoculares; Estudo transversal; Brasil
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the modified Yamane technique with sutureless transconjunctival intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.
METHODS: Sutureless transconjunctival intrascleral haptic fixated intraocular lens implantation was performed in patients with aphakia and dislocated intraocular lenses. A clear corneal incision (2.8 mm) was made into the temporal quadrant and a three-piece intraocular lens was implanted into the anterior chamber. The haptics of the intraocular lens were externalized with a 27 G needle via transconjunctival scleral tunnels at the 6 and 12 o'clock positions. The transconjunctival scleral tunnels were prepared to conform to the haptic position and curvature. The site of the scleral tunnels was 2mm from the limbus with a length of 2 mm in the sclera and was aimed at the end of the posterior chamber. The tips of the haptics were cauterized to create a terminal knob. The haptics were pushed back and the knobs were implanted into the scleral tunnels.
RESULTS: The study cohort included 21 patients with unilateral aphakia and dislocated intraocular lenses. All patients were examined postoperatively and at postoperative day 1, day 7, month 1, and month 3. All examinations revealed formation of the anterior chamber and well-centralized intraocular lenses. No haptic-related complications of exposure, foreign body sensation, or discomfort were observed.
CONCLUSION: Sutureless transconjunctival intrascleral haptic fixated intraocular lensimplantation is an effective, safe, and practical surgical alternative. This technique was superior to the Yamane method with regard to comfort and surgical duration. Further studies with longer follow-up evaluations are warranted to verify long-term complications.
Keywords: Afacia; Implante de lente intraocular; Lentes intraoculares; Procedimentos cirúrgicos sem sutura/instrumentação; Procedimentos cirúrgicos oftalmológicos/métodos
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of pseudoexfoliation syndrome on choroidal thickness as compared with healthy individuals and subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma.
METHODS: This prospective, randomized study included 30 primary open angle glaucoma patients and 30 pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients with similar demographic characteristics and 30 eyes of 30 healthy individuals comprised the control group. Regular optic nerve and macular images were obtained using a Cirrus HD spectral domain optical coherence tomography instrument, along with macular choroidal thickness measurements with enhanced depth imaging mode.
RESULTS: Age, sex, and axial length values were similar among the three groups (p>0.05). The primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma groups had comparable levels of glaucomatous damage. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness values in the primary open angle glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and control groups were 271.80 ± 19.96 µm, 241.43 ± 32.47 µm, and 268.03 ± 24.50 µm, respectively. The pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group had the lowest choroidal thickness values of the three groups (p values: pseudoexfoliation-control: 0.001; pseudoexfoliation-primary open angle glaucoma: <0.001, primary open angle glaucoma-control: 0.516, independent samples t-test).
CONCLUSION: The macular choroid was thinner in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, as compared with both healthy individuals and open-angle glaucoma patients with similar degrees of glaucomatous damage.
Keywords: Síndrome de exfoliação; Glaucoma de ângulo aberto; Coroide; Tomografia de coerência óptica; Pressão intraocular
PURPOSE: To determine the expression profiles of the transcription factor specificity protein 1 and collagen I in primary pterygial and normal conjunctival tissues, and to explore the role of specificity protein 1 and collagen I in pterygial development.
METHODS: The pterygial tissues of 20 patients who underwent resection of primary pterygial tissue in our hospital from June 2016 to December 2017 and the conjunctival tissues of 10 patients with enucleation due to trauma were collected. Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect the relative expression levels of specificity protein 1 and type I collagen at the mRNA and protein levels.
RESULTS: The content of specificity protein 1 and collagen I mRNA and protein was significantly greater in primary pterygial tissue than it was in conjunctival tissue (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the mRNA and protein levels of specificity protein 1 and collagen I in primary pterygial tissues (protein: r=1, p<0.05; mRNA: r=1, p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Specificity protein 1 and collagen I are expressed in normal conjunctival and pterygial tissues, but expression is significantly greater in the latter. Specificity protein 1 and collagen I may be involved in the regulation of the development of primary pterygium.
Keywords: Pterígio; Túnica conjuntiva; Fator de transcrição Sp1; Colágeno tipo I